Within the last thirty years, women lives have undergone with tumultuous changes, even though, they have made significant gains in various work situations and opportunities. According to the united nation publication, there are many women, who lag far behind then men in terms of power, wealth, opportunity and education. However, the participation of women as a labour force has increased tremendously from past many years (Noon, 2001). Still there are many barriers, which restrain them to work in this male dominated society. Attributing from this, the current report will explore literature review in regards with various career challenges being faced by women in Johannesburg by mainly focusing on three main themes i.e. gender inequality, lack of exposure and family pressure. Further, the research design related to the current topic will be included in the subsequent research report.
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From the past few decades, quite significant change has been noticed in the field of higher education in Johannesburg. It is being known as the big commercial centre of South Africa and home to its core industries such as finance, mining and telecommunications. Further, the work environment in Johannesburg is very aggressive, competitive as well as demanding. However, it has high rate of unemployment, due to which people migrate to other part of the world in search for a suitable job. In addition to this, there is plenty of demand for skilled workforce (Beckman and D’Amico, 1995). Now, in Johannesburg increasing number of women is taking part in the academic field. However, still it is quite evident of a glass ceiling that is preventing women to reach at the top position in the organization in uniformity with men. When talking in regards with the nations, who have high sophisticated and family-friendly policies, still women are not able to ascend same rate of academic hierarchy with that of the men. Women, whether working or not working in the organization, face many challenges.
Through the society of decades, the issue in relation with the gender inequality has been publicly reverberating. Today, the issues of gender inequality are one of the most pressing issues. To examine such issue, one needs to put efforts to get to the root of the problem (Rostami-Povey, 2007). Further, comprehension about the sociological factors, which causes women to go through difficult time for the purpose of gaining same benefit, salary, wages and many other opportunities as compared to male, is also required. When throwing light on the society in which all live, it has been historically shaped and nurtured by males (Unterhalter, 2005). Most of the policies, legislation and rules are predominantly developed and created by males. Thus, consequently, it is not surprising to know that the community reflects a sense of biasness, which is mainly because of the dominance of male. Articulating from this, it becomes quite important to evaluate all facets of this issue. However, to analyze such issue, it is required to be recognized that this gender inequality in the workforce is rooted in that factor, which helps in shaping the future employees as well as employers education (Bowen, Cattell and Distiller, 2008).
In this male dominated brokerage environment, women are given very less opportunity to excel. All men as well as other members of the society consider women quite weaker as compared to men. Further, they also believe that they are being born to remain in the boundaries of home and perform their responsibilities towards their house rigorously. In corner of the society, boy is always being regarded as a best gender as compared to girls (England, 2010). This articulates from the fact that the males will going to fame the name of their ancestors and will support their house financially. For all these reasons, the role of women from years was limited only to maintain their house, upbringing children and carrying out all the responsibility as a mother, sister, wife and daughter. However, from the few decades, this problem is somehow decreasing, but still in rural and many other developing nations, it is prevailing at a high rate. Many ways need to be adopted by the organizations and society as a whole to bring an end to this issue. This can be better done by social and economic development (Frome and et. al., 2006). Further, due to the emergence of globalization, many nations are collaborating with each and other in order to achieve common objectives. This in turn influences the perceptions of society in many developed and developing nations and thus, gender equality can be encouraged significantly (Strengmann-kuhn, 2007.
Lack of exposure
In this male dominated society, women are given very less opportunities to excel in the business. When talking in regards with the Johannesburg, the rate of unemployment is considerably very high. Unskilled people are compelled to migrate to other parts of the world in search of a job, as the job offerings are only for the skilled people. There is plenty of demand for the skilled workers in Johannesburg, but for women, still there is very less exposure (Jackson, 2001). There are not provided with proper education as compared to men and due to which they remain within the boundaries of house for years and years. As they do not possess any professional qualifications, it becomes very difficult for them to find suitable jobs. In addition to this, women are also not allowed to go out of their home for a long time because of that they lack practical knowledge about the things, which are essential to comprehend for becoming a good entrepreneur (Madikizela and Haupt, 2009). Due to globalization, social and economical development in most of the nations, the women are also now extending their reach in many fields. However, still they are faced with numerous challenges and issues. Management as well as company holds a belief that it is very risky to invest or finance the projects, which are being hold up by women. Even though they are at the higher position in the organization, they are not allowed to gain practical knowledge. They just involve themselves into some back-office jobs and due to which they lack practical understanding about the subject matter. Thus, attributed from the above factors, it can be said that unless and until the women are not given exposure, all males will continue to dominate the society (Roth, 2007).
Research design encompasses various methodologies, policies and procedures that are being employed by the researcher to conduct a scientific research. Further, it also helps in presenting the type of research being adopted by the researcher, various research questions, hypothesis, and methods of data collection, data analysis techniques and sampling methods (Gill and Johnson, 2002).
By seeking help from the research approach, the researcher can increase the effectiveness of the research report. When talking in regards with the type of research approaches, they are mainly of two types i.e. deductive and inductive. Inductive approach is being defined as those approaches, which move from specific to general. Here, in this approach the conclusion is based on the some premises. This approach is also being known as bottom up approach (Kathleen and Stephen, 2004). On contrary to this, the deductive approach is just the opposite of the inductive approach. It moves from general to more specific observation and it is also known as top-down approach.
In this present research study, the researcher has made use of deductive research approach, as he will be first going to explore various theories in regards with the challenges being faced by women in their career path and afterwards hypothesis will be developed. Then he will move towards determining the perception of society and women in Johannesburg.
Data collection methods
In each and every research, gathering relevant data is very important. Without this, research study cannot be completed successfully. Further, decision in regards with the selection of methods of data collection is also very significant. This can be well attributed from the fact that any inaccurate or inconsistent will surly going to influence the overall result of the study. By this, the whole research work will be invalid. There are generally, two methods for accumulating data related to the subject matter. One is primary and other one is secondary methods (Creswell, 2003). There are various ways of collecting primary data. It can either be collected by observation, survey, interview, in-depth interview etc. On the other hand, secondary data can be collected by exploring various journals, articles, newspaper, research paper of renowned authors and scholars.
Data analysis techniques
This section of the report is being regarded as one of the most significant and vital chapter of the report. Data analysis chapter succeed immediately with the data collection section. It is nothing but defined as a systematic process through accumulated data from the primary research can be evaluated. Thus, this section also helps in offering conclusion to the research problem by the way of forming appropriate inferences. Generally, there are 2 kinds of data analysis techniques, which can help the researcher in analyzing the whole research work (Mouton and Marais, 1988). They are; qualitative and quantitative methods. When speaking in regards with the qualitative method, herein various themes are being formulated for the purpose of forming inferences from the information so acquired from the primary research. On the other hand, quantitative analysis offers graphical representation of the information. This technique of data analysis provides accurate and precise analysis of data (Creswell, 2003).
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