As per as the literature review chapter is concerned, it is one of the major sections of the dissertation writing. It not only explains the past needs of the research but also explains and covers the major objectives of the study. As for every need of the approved topic, all the research that has been done on the same topic is discussed in a systematic manner so that the approach towards the topic is clear while moving further on the topic. Due to a discussion of the past research work, new approaches can be easily derived by the researcher in relation to the research.
it helps the researcher to evaluate the past history and determine the gap that the earlier researcher has not covered. Now, in context the above description literature review will be helpful to discuss the knowledge that is beneficial to answer the research questions that have been described in the above chapter. The study will include all the information that is related to the topic and will be followed by the critical analysis of the data collected. As per as this research is concerned, the major focus is on the errors that the Turkish students made during the utilization of the English language.
There are so many learners those are involved in making regular grammatical mistakes during the process of the language transfer (Ammerlaan, 1997). Now in context as their study is concerned, they are habitual of making this kind of the mistakes. The errors that are recognized in there are related to the grammatical errors, sentence formation, spellings, singular plural, articles, verb in relation to the transitive and intransitive, articles, auxiliaries & modals, verb forms (Andersen,1983).
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In context as the previous researcher is concerned, there is the inclusion of two important terms as an influence and acquire. As per the perception of Odlin, for clarifying the concept of the L2 there is the requirement of the deep study of the aspects that are related to it (Bialystok, 1990). The concept of L2 is considered with the strategy, process and simplification. For preceding the study, there is the requirement of clear neurological aspects (Burling, 1978). In context the theoretical concept of Odlin, one language named as L1 has the effect on the other language that is L2. Therefore the researcher has to plan for two knowledge system in which the knowledge of the both the languages can be stored. In context the perception of the other researcher Ellis, there are the no clear concepts that have been discussed for the further understanding (Chomsky, 1965).
As per as the transfer is concerned it cannot be adopted as an easy task for the speakers and the writer along with the conversion of the knowledge. The transfer basically means the way through which there is a continuous flow of the knowledge from one language to another (Comrie, 1979). As per the research is concerned, from around 2000 years, there is a huge debate between the researcher about the effect of the native language on the second language. The major focus is on the use of the native language during classroom teaching (Corder, 1992).
An active investigation is done on the constraints which is further than the scope of this dissertation but still requires knowledge for the existence as “any one variable can change the result of one’s analysis” (Odlin, T., 2002). Many researchers have done debate on language transfer to concentrate their attention on the nature and type of factors that affects language transfer (Odlin, 2002).
As per views of Odin, a restraint is constituted by “anything that protects the learner from either noticing or decided that the learner is a real and helpful. However, the constraints of similar factors are as follows:
Thus, with this factor it is a possibility that L2 learning process and language process will help in transferring positive result (Odlin, 2003). It is possible only when there are typological like between the mother tongue and the foreign languages. The First artist who identified the importance of the role of the likeliness between L1 and L2 are Kellerman and Ringbom. Ringbom recommended that learners continuously do not look for differences but they find similarities of two or more learners (Odlin, 2002). He argued that cheap amount of negative transfer can increase total errors of a learning transfer. While linguistic differences between L1 and L2 avoid learning structure, in which they think it is a difficult (Odlin, 2002).
Several scholars have forecasted that how the differences and similarities of L1 and L2 delay the process of learning process and process of incoming at what learners actually transfers is difficult. In section 2.1 it has been mentioned that “pressure of one language to another has something to do with storage space of two knowledge system present in same brain”. Perhaps, this dissertation is somewhat concerned with the language use of Lexical transfer (Van Buren, and Sharwood, 1985). Thus, it is important to explain how bilingual lexicon operates and how it influences the transfer of lexical. In simple words, how two languages can be stored in one brain at the same time.
Odlin and Jarvis dispute that through language transfer only two mental processes occur in bilingual lexicon. It is the information about learning cross linguistic association and processing interference. The concept of learned cross-linguistic association includes mental links between protective representation of elements from L1 and L2. Odlin defines them as “interlingual identifications” which are equivalent in relation of learners for establishing native and target language. Thus, learners use incorrect associations for representing the word of L1 with a word in L2. However, still the process of cross-linguistic language is not clear.
Usually, there are types of lexical transfer: lemmatic and lexemic transfer. Lexemic transfer includes phonological and grapheme aspects of a word and manifests itself by the use of false friends. False friends are L1 and L2 the word pairs can be shared but not the meaning. For instance, learner of Swedish understood semantic likeliness between words but they are only phonetically similar and English words reflect the phonologic similarity with a Swedish word and these are considered as appropriate word.
It reflects that their presence caused due to the high degree of activation of L1 word. For instance, word clother is a result of mixing the properties of Swedish word klader with English clothes.
Lemma is a conceptual symbol of a word in the mental lexicon. It combines the feature of lexical items like semantic and syntactic features. Perhaps, Jarvis suggests four types of semantic extensions, calques, collocation transfer and sub categorization transfer. They believe that by connecting all types of transfer becomes a syntactic transfer and semantic associations. Semantic extensions vary from semantic ranges of L1 and L2.
Other types of lemantic transfers are directly translated from the Finnish word tulittikut. The Transfer takes characteristics of a blue print for the sequence of sentence for communicating different meaning.
Collocation transfer includes a shift of words or expressions that are existing together and are specified to L1 but are presented in different ways in L2. Sub categorization transfer involves a syntactic error includes a headword due to its complement they are directly transferred from L1. In the perspective of this dissertation, it briefly describes how data will be collected for the analysis in chapter 5. It is important to note that all definition terminology will be referred in chapter 5 which are described above.
As per the nature of the study, there is the requirement of syntactic transfer along with the use of the lexical transfer. The main reason behind it that as it also focuses and help in the extraction along with discussion of syntactic blueprint. There is an advantage behind considering the reason that is responsible for the choosing the particular structure of grammar from the native language for conversion. In context as the role of the lexical transfer is concerned, it has been approved where as the there is the still question in the case of the role of the syntactic transfer. As per the research on the both transfer that is syntactic and lexical, the lexical appears more frequently than the syntactic transfer. Due to less repetitive nature of the syntactic transfer, the researcher shows less important than the lexical transfer. There are maximum chances that the learners during the process of L1 to L2 shift make frequent use of the syntax. The effect of the continuous use of the syntax is seen as the learner is deviating towards understanding rather than the grammar structure of the sentence. Therefore due to this the grammatical errors increases during the time when the learner is focused on the mutual understanding during the language contact situation.
Moving forward towards the concept of the syntactic transfer phenomenon, is the assessed that this phenomenon is connected with two types of the language learning, majorly named as conscious and subconscious processes. Along with this there are two types of the knowledge that the learner learns during this period are named as explicit and implicit knowledge. Due to the utilization of the both the types of the knowledge the process of the language transfer gets influenced.
In context discussion and past usage of the term explicit and conscious by the researcher in the various issues, the term is considered as the appropriate knowledge of rules that are applicable in particular language writing and spoken skills. It is also related to the ability that the learner holds regarding following the rules of that particular language. Moreover the term implicit and the term unconscious are related to the elements that are associated with the language and are quite sensitive in nature. Along with this it is also assumed that the elements of the language are implied and understood by the learners as per his capabilities. In context the previous research findings, there is the complete influence of the L2 related aspects due to the formal instructions related to the language (L1). The part of the syntactical structure is also getting influenced due to these formal instructions. Due to the formal instructions provided to the learners, it makes the learner quite aware of the grammatical errors that he or she makes during speech and written work.
These instructions have improved the capacity of the learners to become accurate on the grammatical aspects. Along with this the learner also becomes aware of the appropriateness regarding the language forms. In context the experience of the previous learners, it is essential for the learner to use the explicit knowledge. The use of the explicit knowledge not only helps to control the mistakes related to the language and also able to correct the earlier mistakes easily.
The major reason behind the decrease of the amount of the transfer from L1 to L2 as per Odin is due to the use of the explicit knowledge and the conscious control on both the languages that is taken into consideration (Ringbom, H., 1978). In context the findings of the author Jarvis, there are some people who are in the process of the learning two different languages (Richards and Renandya, 2002). In the process of translating the information from one language to another, many mistakes were found, for example, the most common mistake was inappropriate use of the article “the” in their work (Richards, 1974). They were making the use of the article “the” correctly while they are conscious but at the same time use the same “the” while they are unconscious (Philips, 2002). It totally depends upon the learners that how he can use the implicit knowledge as well as explicit knowledge during the transfer of language.
The amount of influence of the explicit knowledge depends on the previous learning of the learners in the same context (Otwinowska-Kasztelanic, 2011). If the learner has a sound amount of explicit knowledge, the utilization will be beneficial and in the right direction. Along with this the similarities and the differences between L1 and L2 is also included in the process (Otwinowska-Kasztelanic, 2010 ).
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