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Employees Motivation & Performance

Research Question, Locating Literature & Approach

INTRODUCTION

Employees are the most valuable asset for an organization. They lead a company to success and achieving its business goals. Motivating the workforce and getting their commitment towards organizational goals can vastly improve the overall business performance. Most of the theories of motivation concluded that employees can be motivated through satisfaction. So in order to motivate the workforce and improve their performance management need to take several steps that can satisfy the workforce (Mani, 2010). This study is being undertaken to assess the modelling of employees’ motivation and performance in a particular organization. The selected organization for this study is Pfizer Pharmaceuticals.

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EXERCISE 1: Research Question

As stated above the motivation plays a vital role in overall performance of an organization. The overall performance of an organization is vastly based on the performance of its workforce that can be improved by motivation. The aim of this research is to produce a model of employee motivation and performance in Pfizer Pharmaceuticals. Based on this aim the major research question is:

  • What are the attributes that affect the employee motivation and performance in Pfizer Pharmaceuticals and develop a model addressing those attributes?

Motivation is a key factor that plays a major role in developing the performance and improving the productivity of workforce. There are number of theories that address the employee motivation and performance but most of them are not so effective in current scenario due to their unrealistic assumptions and changing working culture. These theories of motivation and employees performance provided different aspects that can help in motivating employees and improving their performance. Economic, social, achievement, affiliation and individual’s own goals are just few of them (Arleck and Settle, 2004). The major problem being faced by organization is that in present business world every individual have verity of needs so it has become a tough task for management for identify the most appropriate aspect of motivation. Theories provide a platform for research but they are no more effective due to their unrealistic assumptions. In current scenario the level of competition is on its highest level where companies are not only focusing on attracting the customers as well also looking to attract skilled employees. Losing a skilled employee can make negative effects in multiple manners (Beck, 2003). One is the loss of losing an asset as well as finding their replacement and making expenses for training and development of new comer on the other hand that skilled employee can become a threat for the company if he is hired by a competitor. So it is very important for managers to identify the needs of their employees’ and way to satisfy those needs so that employees can be retained for a longer period with their commitment towards organization’s goals.

Satisfaction can be defined as a pleasure or contentment and it has direct link with motivation and performance of employees (Kamalian, Yaghoubi and Moloudi, 2010). So by conducting an in-depth study of motivation and performance on BSc level, comprehensive understanding of psychological factors in business world can be made. In current academic motivation research the key problems is that there is no single model to capture the full dynamics of motivated behaviours, despite a proliferation of theories and models testing specific hypotheses and relationships (Bong, 1996). This statement of Bong was on the research of motivation in an education setting but in current scenario this statement is equally true if it is applied in business world.

The study based on above research question will identify the various aspects of motivation and performance of employees at Pfizer Pharmaceuticals and will develop a model of motivation and performance while taking those aspects into account.

EXERCISE 2: Thinking Ahead

Conducing a research is never an easy task, it is long process which requires lots of affords and concentration. The level of affords will be higher as the research is being conducted on an important topic of today’s business world (Brown, 2007). This research will be completed in 19 different steps. The very first step is preparing of research proposal that will require a minimum of 5 days to be completed. Next task will be to read various literatures regarding the research topic. In next two weeks four major tasks will be completed that are deciding the final aim and objective of study, drafting of literature review, collection of secondary data and analysis of collected data. In fourth week of the study research approach will be developed, research methodology will be drafted and research questionnaire will be developed. In the next week survey will be arranged and conducted. Then the data will be accumulated. During the sixth week of research the most important tasks of this research will be performed and that are of drafting the findings and analysing them. During the seventh week reaming chapters of the study will be completed. In 8th week the report will be submitted to tutor for feedbacks. After revising the draft, print and bind the final submission of report will be made in 9th week.

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EXERCISE 3: Locating Literature

According to Quratul-Ain Manzoor in their article in Business Management and Strategy; an essential part is played by empowerment and recognition in enhancing employee motivation towards organizational tasks. The employees can be satisfied internally with their job and organizational environment by giving them participation in decision making and appreciating them for their work done. And by doing so, employees’ motivation and enthusiasm can be increased towards accomplishment of tasks. Employees like to work more hardly for companies that provide them the opportunities of growth and lead towards productivity and prosperity. Thus there is direct relationship between organizational effectiveness and employees’ motivation.

Study conducted by Muhammad (2011) also proved that in order to motivate employees an organization should make such organizational structure and policies that support employee empowerment and recognition. Various studies conducted by Rizwan (2010), Kalimullah (2010) and Reena (2009) also concluded that there is positive relation between employee recognition and employee motivation towards organizational tasks. So ultimately reorganization and appreciation of employees for their task fulfillment motivate them towards working with more dedication and energy. It also improves their performance (Mazorr, 2012).

According to Anatoliy G. Goncharuk and Jamie P. monat (2009), doing any activity in order to satisfy inherent needs rather than any separable outcome can be defined as intrinsic motivation. In common words intrinsically motivated employee work more effectively and take the responsibilities as challenge instead of any external pressures (Wood, 2011). The cognitive evaluation theory presented by Deci and Ryan stays that internal influence play a key role in motivating an individual. According to this theory performance of employees’ can be improved by intrinsic motivation through interpersonal structures and events like communication and feedback. Goncharuk and Monat stated that intrinsic motivation works better while performing a particular task for long time. While doing work on a single assignment an individual can be motivated by feedback and communication. As the above discussed view of Mazorr, this theory also concluded that positive feedback and appreciation can motivate individuals for better performance (Goncharuk and Monat, 2009).

The study by Margaret H. Charist, Scott A. Emett, Scott L. Summers and David A. Wood found that in current scenario there are two major factors that affect the intrinsic motivation. This intrinsic motivation plays the key role in retaining an employee for longer term. The best of world stays that people do love their job, like their co-workers, happy with their pay and never leave their work but in actual world everything is different. If employees are psychologically not motivated then they will not for a longer term. Poor working condition, less pay and unsupportive co-workers can de-motivate them and results in form of higher human attrition rate. So organizations should make a commitment towards satisfying all those needs that can help in intrinsic motivation of employees (Christ, Emett, Summers and Wood, 2012).

EXERCISE 4: Approach

A research process can be carried out with one of two research approaches. The research approach indicates the methodology which has been adopted in order to conduct a research (Fard, Ghatari and Hasiri, 2010). It involves the conceptual framework that has to be adopted for the research, selection of research questions, selection of research method etc. There can be two research approaches deductive and inductive. The philosophy of Interpretivism and qualitative research type are involved in inductive research approach. The inductive research approach focus on collection of data, then analyze it and develop theories based on this analysis (Nestor and Schutt, 2011). As researcher can make necessary changes during the research progress this type of approach is more flexible than other one. Basically this research approach moves from particular situations to broad general theories or ideas. On the other hand deductive research approach is completely different. It moves from a general theory to more specific situation. It starts with a general theory, then hypothesis is developed, then it records the observation and finally confirmation is given. For deductive reasoning arguments based on rules, laws and accepted principles are generally used. It is related to the positivism philosophy and it follows a pre-determined design and quantitative research type. The deductive approach is also called top-down approach (Gulati, 2009).

For this present study inductive approach will be implemented. As there is no need to develop any hypothesis and for this research firstly information will be collected in order to develop broader theoretical prospective so inductive approach will be a best suitable tool for it. The collected data will be based on personal experience of respondents. As this research will start with a specific idea of motivation and performance of employees and end with the development of a model for motivation and performance. Inductive approach is best fit for this research as it takes specific observation and draws general conclusion form them (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2006).

As the aim of this research is to identify the key factors of motivation and develop a model for employee motivation and performance so firstly the specific factors will be identified. After identifying the most important factor on the basis of research and responds the model will be developed. During this research general information will be collected from various sources to help in identify the key aspects of motivation and then developing the model.

CONCLUSION

Motivation plays a crucial role in improving employees’ performance and productivity. Various theories and models are developed for motivation but in current scenario things are changed so as the needs of employees too. So organizations require a comprehensive model of motivation that can boost the productivity of their workforce. This present report focuses of developing such model by identifying the motivational factors.

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References

  • Anderson, C. 2010. Presenting and evaluating qualitative research. American journal of pharmaceutical education. 74(8). pp. 141.
  • Arleck, P. L., and Settle, R. 2004. The survey research handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Beck, R.C. 2003. Motivation: Theories and Principles, 4th Ed. New Delhi: Pearson Education.
  • Bong, M. 1996. ‘Problems in Academic Motivation Research and Advantages and Disadvantages of Their Solutions. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 21(2). pp. 149-165.
  • Brown, L.V. 2007. Psychology of Motivation. NY: Nova Science Publisher.
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